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  • B.S., Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 1965
  • Ph.D., Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1971


My research is a collaborative biophysics effort with a number of biologists who are working on several cryobiological problems.  Cryobiology has seen wide use for the efficient preservation of genetic mutants used in medical research (e.g. mice), assisted reproduction in humans and animals (e.g. the dairy industry), organ transplantation (e.g. pancreatic islet cells), and preservation of endangered species (e.g. the black-footed ferret). But no, not human heads or bodies.

Successful cryopreservation requires both the careful freezing and warming of specimens. My recent work has centered on the use of an IR laser to achieve ultra rapid warming of frozen specimens.  This work was done with Peter Mazur at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (now deceased).  The method shows excellent promise for the successful cryopreservation of several species which have proved difficult for decades.  E.g. zebrafish embryos and coral larvae. 

I am mostly retired now, but still occasionally help out with laser warming work.  Current collaborators include Drs. Mary Hagedorn, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, and the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Oahu, HI; Estefania Paredes, Uni of Vigo, Vigo, Spain; and Serean Adams, Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.

Publications & Professional Activities

Important and Recent Publications (Publications and Reprints)

Jonathan Daly, Nikolas Zuchowicz, Carmela Isabel Nunez Lendo, Kanav Khosla, Claire Lager, Michael Henley, John Bischof, FW Kleinhans, Chiahsin Lin, Esther Peters, and Mary Hagedorn.  (2018)

Successful cryopreservation of coral larvae using vitrification and laser warming, Submitted.


Kleinhans FW and Mazur P. (2015)

Physical parameters, modeling, and methodological details in using IR laser pulses to warm frozen or vitrified cells ultra-rapidly. Cryobiology 70, 195-203.


Jin B, Kleinhans FW, Mazur P.  (2014)

Survivals of mouse oocytes approach 100% after vitrification in 3-fold diluted media and ultra-rapid warming by an IR laser pulse.  Cryobiology 68, 419-430.


Kleinhans FW, Seki S, Mazur P.  (2010)

Simple, inexpensive attainment and measurement of very high cooling and warming rates. Cryobiology 61, 231-233.


Kleinhans FW and Mazur P.  (2007)
Comparison of actual vs. synthesized ternary phase diagrams for solutes of cryobiological interest. Cryobiology 54, 212-222.


Kleinhans FW, Guenther JF, Roberts DM and Mazur P  (2006)
Analysis of Intracellular Ice Nucleation in Xenopus Oocytes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Cryobiology 52 , 128-138.


Kleinhans FW  (1998)

Invited Review:  Membrane permeability modeling: Kedem-Katchalsky vs a two parameter formalism.  Cryobiology 37, 271-289.

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